Statuses, columns, or groups are methods of organizing tasks for ease of work. In the "Board" view each status is represented as a column. In the "To Do List," "Table" and some other views you can see tasks grouped by statuses. To change the status use the task card.
For example, for a "Shopping List" project, the columns can be the names of the stores where you plan to make specific purchases. And for a "WordPress Blog" project, the columns can be major work blocks: "Design," "Setup," "Content," in which specific tasks will be placed.
Another important purpose of columns is to display the task execution process. For example, you can make columns like "In Progress," "Done," "Under Review," "Accepted." Each task must go through all these columns to be considered checked and completed. Thus, on the project board with such columns, it is always visible how tasks are being executed and in what state the project is overall.
In the 'Board' view, each status is shown as a separate column, and tasks with that status are placed in the corresponding column. It's like having a mini-list for each status. You can move tasks around in these columns to change their order and also do other things with the tasks.